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ESAblawg is an educational effort by Keith W. Rizzardi. Correspondence with this site does not create a lawyer-client relationship. Photos or links may be copyrighted (but used with permission, or as fair use). ESA blawg is published with a Creative Commons License.

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florida gators... never threatened!

If you ain't a Gator, you should be! Alligators (and endangered crocs) are important indicator species atop their food chains, with sensitivity to pollution and pesticides akin to humans. See ESA blawg. Gator blood could be our pharmaceutical future, too. See ESA musing.


Follow the truth.

"This institution will be based on the illimitable freedom of the human mind. For here we are not afraid to follow truth wherever it may lead, nor to tolerate any error so long as reason is left free to combat it." -- Thomas Jefferson to William Roscoe, December 27, 1820.


Thanks, Kevin.

KEVIN S. PETTITT helped found this blawg. A D.C.-based IT consultant specializing in Lotus Notes & Domino, he also maintains Lotus Guru blog.

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FWS proposes to list three foreign species: the Andean flamingo, Chilean woodstar, and St. Lucia forest thrush

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73 Fed. Reg. 79226 / Vol. 73, No. 248 / Wednesday, December 24, 2008 / DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR / Fish and Wildlife Service / 50 CFR Part 17 / Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Three Foreign Bird Species From Latin America and the Caribbean as Endangered Throughout Their Range / Proposed rule.

SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to list three species of birds from Latin America and the Caribbean—the Andean flamingo (Phoenicoparrus andinus), the Chilean woodstar (Eulidia yarrellii), and the St. Lucia forest thrush (Cichlherminia lherminieri sanctaeluciae)—as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act) (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). This proposal, if made final, would extend the Act’s protection to these species. The Service seeks data and comments from the public on this proposed rule. DATES: We will accept comments received or postmarked on or before February 23, 2009. We must receive requests for public hearings, in writing, at the address shown in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section by February 9, 2009.

EXCERPT: Flamingos (Phoenicopteridae) are gregarious, long-lived birds that inhabit saline wetlands and breed in colonies.  Andean flamingo is one of three flamingo species that is endemic to the high Andes of South America. All flamingos have pink plumage to varying degrees. The Andean flamingo is distinguished from other South American flamingos by its size (being the largest in the area), leg coloring (being the only flamingo with yellow legs), and wing coloring (having prominent black tertial feathers that form a ‘‘V’’ when the flamingo is not in flight). Andean flamingos are longlived.

Two Andean flamingos.  Photo from Wikipedia.

EXCERPT: The Chilean woodstar, endemic to Chile and Peru, is a small hummingbird in the Trochilidae family.  No larger than the size of a moth, the Chilean woodstar is approximately 3 inches (in) (8 centimeters (cm)) in length and has a short black bill. Males have iridescent olive-green upperparts, white underparts, and a bright violet-red throat  Females also have iridescent olive-green upperparts; however, their underparts are buff (pale yellow-brown) and they do not have a brightly colored throat…  The species was first taxonomically described by Bourcier in 1847 and placed in Trochilidae as Eulidia yarrellii (BLI 2008). According to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) species database, the Chilean woodstar is also known by the synonyms Myrtis yarrellii and Trochilus yarrellii…  The Chilean woodstar has generally been described as inhabiting riparian thickets, secondary growth, desert river valleys, arid scrub, agricultural lands, and gardens... In areas with higher tree cover, more Chilean woodstars were observed … As with all hummingbird species, the Chilean woodstar relies on nectarproducing flowers for food but also relies on insects as a source of protein…  Its small beak and body size enable it to exploit flowers with very small corollas (collective term for the petals of a flower).  

EXCERPT: The St. Lucia forest thrush (Cichlhermina lherminieri sanctaeluciae) (hereafter referred to as ‘‘thrush’’) is a subspecies of the forest thrush (C. lherminieri) in the family Turdidae. It is a medium-sized bird, approximately 10 inches (in) (25 to 27 centimeters (cm)) in length (BLI 2000). This subspecies has all dark upperparts, is brownish below with white spots on the breast, flanks and upper belly, and white lower belly. It has yellow legs and bill, and bare skin around the eye.